An Easy-to-Understand Example
First, your translator reads the menu (parses the code) and translates it into a language you understand (compiles it into bytecode or machine code). Next, they relay the translated menu items to you (execution), and you start ordering and enjoying the local cuisine.
While you’re eating, you find that you really like a particular dish and order it frequently. Seeing this, your translator takes note and learns to translate that dish’s name more quickly and efficiently (optimization).
The understanding of how this works can provide valuable insight into how the interactive elements of the websites you visit every day come to life.